Disease Management Strategies

{ Posted on Apr 24 2013 by admin }
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Categories : Coconut

Since the disease is caused by phytoplasma it is not amenable to conventional plant protection measures. One of the significant features of the disease is that it is not lethal but a debilitating malady which responds to ideal management practices. Two strategies, one for the heavily diseased contiguous area, and another for the mildly affected area have been formulated. In the heavily diseased area, the yield of palms can be sustained or even improved through adoption of integrated management practices like removal of disease advanced palms, balanced fertilizer application, addition of organic manures, raising of green manure crops in the basins and incorporation, irrigation during summer months, expectation practicing plant protection methods and adopting inter and mixed cropping. Mixed farming in the diseased gardens involving the raising of fodder crops in the inter spaces, maintaining milch cows and recycling of organic waste has helped in increasing the yield of palms.

The loss can be reduced to the minimum if palms could be attended immediately on appearance of symptoms and prophylactic and curative treatment for leaf rot is given to all palms in the disease prevalent areas twice a year. Management of leaf rot is very important in addition to irrigation and recommended dose of fertilizers and manures for the effective management of root (wilt) disease of coconut in heavily disease affected area.

Leaf rot being a major component in the root (wilt) disease complex contributing to rapid decline and reduction in yield, CPCRI has developed a very effective, easy to practice, labour saving and economically viable integrated management practice for the management of leaf rot disease and major pests occurring in heavily root (wilt) disease affected tracts.
• Cut and remove rotten portions of the spindle and the adjacent two innermost fully opened leaves, if affected by leaf rot. White soft leaflets of the spindle alone are susceptible to fungal attack. Therefore, older leaves that had leaf rot disease earlier need not be removed.
• Mix Contaf 5 EC (Hexaconazole) 2 ml or Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb) 3 g in 300 ml water and pour around the base of the spindle leaf.
• Apply 20 g Phorate 10G or 30 g Furadan 3G mixed with 200 g sand around the base of the spindle leaf.
• Treat all palms in the garden (healthy and diseased) twice a year, i.e. in April – May and October – November. To make this operation more economical the treatment should be given along with harvest of nuts before and after south – west monsoon.

Residue analysis done for the chemicals in mature and tender nuts showed that the nut water, kernel, coconut oil and coconut cake are free from residues after 45 days of application at the rates suggested above.

The strategy for mildly affected area is to contain the disease by removing all the diseased palms. Eradication of disease – affected palms to contain the disease can be successful if continuous monitoring for occurrence of the disease and uprooting of diseased palms in the very initial stage of the disease are taken you simultaneously. If the programme is not monitored uninterruptedly the desired goal will not be achieved.

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